Universe

Shedding new light on the shadowlands of the universe

We exist in a vast Universe — the bulk of which we can not see. What’s it made of, and has changed its composition over time? The starlit galaxies, galaxy clusters, and superclusters are all embedded in invisible halos composed of a transparent material called “dark matter” by scientists. This mysterious substance creates an enormous, invisible structure throughout Space and Time — a fabulous, fantastic tapestry woven of heavy filaments composed of this “dark” material, which is thought to be formed from unidentified material. A team of scientists revealed in March 2020 that they had found a sub-atomic particle that could have created the dark matter in the Universe at its Big Bang formation.

Scientists believe that up to 80 percent of the Universe could be dark matter, but its origin remained a puzzle despite years of investigation. Although it can not be directly observed, most astronomers believe that this ghostly form of matter is actually there, because it dances gravitationally with forms of matter that can be observed — such as stars and planets. This invisible material is composed of exotic particles not emitting, absorbing, or reflecting light.

A team of nuclear physicists at York University ( UK) are now suggesting a new particle candidate for this ghostly material — a particle that they have recently discovered called the d-star hexaquark.

The d-star hexaquark consists of six quarks — the fundamental particles that usually interact to create the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus in trios.

Boost a quark for a study target

In Finnegan ‘s Wake, the Irish novelist James Joyce (1882-1941) had a drunken character raising a quarter of dark beer toast a man named Finnegan who had just died. He said wrongly, “Raising a quark for Mark’s muster.” The American physicist, Nobel laureate Murray Gell-Mann (1929-2019), who was one of the scientists who proposed the quark ‘s existence in 1964, thought it was so funny that after the drunken host he named that sub particle. Also independently the Russian-American physicist George Zweig proposed the quark ‘s existence that same year.

A quark is a type of elementary particle, a fundamental constituent of matter. Combine quarks to create composite particles called hadrons. Hadrons are subatomic particles of a form that contains protons and neutrons that can engage in the strong interaction that binds the nuclei together.

Indeed, protons and neutrons are the most stable hadrons — the components that form the nuclei of atoms. The quarks were not specifically examined or detected in isolation because of a condition called light confinement. They were contained only inside hadrons, for this purpose. Because of this, much of what the scientists discovered concerning quarks was taken from the study of hadrons

Quarks also possess other intrinsic properties including mass, color, electrical charging, and spin. They are the only known elementary particle in the Particle Physics Standard Model to display all four fundamental interactions — also called fundamental forces — strong interaction, weak interaction, gravity, and electromagnetism. Also, quarks are the only known elementary particles whose electrical charges are not multiples of integer elementary charges.

The quark types are referred to as flavors: up, down, strange, charming, down, and up. As a result of a process called particle decay, the heavier quarks rapidly experience a metamorphosis into up and down quarks. Particle decay is the transition from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. For this reason, quarks both up and down are stable, as are the most abundant in the Universe. Strange, charm, bottom, and top quarks, on the other hand, can only be churned out in high-energy collisions — like those involving cosmic rays or particle accelerators. There is a corresponding antiquark for each quark-flavor. In other features, such as electric charge, the antiquark antiparticle varies from the quark only. The antiquark antiparticles are of equal magnitude but a sign to the opposite.

There was little evidence for the physical existence of quarks until the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center conducted deep, inelastic scattering experiments in 1968. Experiments with accelerators have provided evidence that all six flavors exist. The last to be identified as the top quark first detected at Fermilab in 1995.

Shadowland in the Universe

Most of our Universe is often said to be “missing,” composed primarily as it is of an unidentified substance which is called dark energy. The mysterious dark energy causes the expansion of the Universe to accelerate and is thought to be a property of Space itself.

The latest measurements show that the Universe consists of about 70 percent dark energy and 25 percent dark matter. The sources and existence of the enigmatic dark matter, as well as dark energy, remain unclear today. A slightly reduced proportion of our Galaxy is made up of so-called ‘regular’ radioactive matter. “Ordinary” atomic matter-really extraordinary-is are relatively scarce. However, it is the substance that accounts for all the elements that are mentioned in the common Periodic Table. While being the tiny “runt” of the celestial litter of three, “regular” atomic matter is what makes up stars, planets, oceans, and people — all that is most common to human beings on Earth. It is also the precious form of matter which created and evolved life in the Universe.

The Universe looks exactly the same wherever it is observed on the largest scales. It displays a bubbly, foamy look, with extremely massive and huge filaments composed of dark matter intertwining around each other, creating a web-like structure called the Cosmic Web. The vast Interstellar Web’s ghostly, invisible filaments are formed by countless galaxies burning with the flames of dazzling starlight, highlighting the enormous, intertwining braids of dark matter surrounding the observable Universe galaxies. Huge, groggy, dark, And the web-like design is disrupted by almost empty Voids. The Voids host a few galaxies, and that’s the reason they seem to be completely empty. In dramatic contrast, the Cosmic Web ‘s massive starlit filaments weave themselves around these near-empty Voids, creating a fabulous, complicated, braided knot.

Some cosmologists have suggested that the entire large-scale structure of the Universe is actually made up of just one filament and one single void twisted together in a complex and complex tangle.

Join The Hexaquark D-Star

The hexaquark d-star is composed of six quarks. These basic particles usually join in trios to create the atomic nucleus protons and neutrons. More notably, a boson particle is formed by the six quarks in a d-star hexaquark This indicates that when there is a large number of d-star hexaquarks that can dance together and combine to the protons and neutrons in very different ways. A boson is an energy bearing particle. Those photons are bosons, for example.

The University of York’s team of scientists suggests that under the conditions that existed shortly after the Big Bang, a multitude of d-star hexaquarks could have met and then combined as the Universe cooled down from its original extremely hot state and then expanded to create a fifth state of matter — what is called a Bose-Einstein condensate.

A Bose-Einstein Condensate is a state of matter in which separate atoms or subatomic particles, cooled to near absolute zero, coalesce into a single quantum entity — that is, one that can be described on a near-microscopic scale through a wave function.

The first appraisal of the feasibility of this latest contender for dark matter was reported by Dr. Mikhail Bashkanov and Dr. Daniel Watts of the Department of Physics at York University.

On March 3, 2020, University of York Press Release, Dr. Watts noted that “The nature of the dark matter in the cosmos is one of science’s biggest mysteries and one that has drawn a blank until now.”

“Our first calculations suggest that condensation of d-stars is a feasible new candidate for dark matter and this new possibility seems worth further, more detailed investigation,” he added.

“The result is particularly exciting as it requires no concepts new to physics,” Dr. Watts continued commenting.

Co-author, Dr. Bashkanov, stated in the same York Press Release University that “The next phase in creating this latest nominee for dark matter should be to develop a deeper understanding of how the d-stars communicate — when they attract and when they repel each other. We are teaching new calculations to build d-stars inside an atomic nucleus and to see how their properties are different from when the d-stars communicate.

The scientists are now planning to work with researchers in Germany and the United States to test their new theory. dark matter in the Universe and to hunt for d-star hexaquarks.

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